Orta Zurna
orta zurna 
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  Zurna Der Sackpfeyffer zu Linden
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The zurna (sorna, mizmar) is a double-reed wood-wind instrument with a conical bored tube that's mostly finished with a large bell. It has eight medium sized fingerholes whereby the eight hole is fingered with the left thumb. Upper end of tube is closed with a clothespin-like piece called the capisto. The thumbhole is not the first hole nearest by player in difference to the European wood-wind instruments. The thumbhole is nearly in the middle between fingerholes for left forefinger and left middle finger. This fingerhole configuration is typical for the oriental wood-wind instruments. Cross fingerings can be used. The instrument has a large range to slide tones. That enables to tune tones to every scale incl. microtones. Also a limited possibility to play glissandi exists. The zurna have its orign in antique predecessors and it's the oldest known member of the shawm family. Many kinds of the instrument exist in accordance to this. Sound passes from sonorous to strong nasal. Sound is always clearly sharp, often rough and sometimes a little bit scratchy. All kinds of the instrument sound very loud. It's played sometimes with the oboe technique but mostly it's played with free blowing and circular breathing whereby the lips are relieved by a lip-ring. The zurna has a scale range of about 1½…2 octaves whereby it's overblown once. Three sizes really exist. The medium sized zurna (orta zurna) is mostly known. Thats scale range starts about the middle of the once-accented octave. The short sized zurna (cura zurna) has a scale range that starts about a fifth above the deepest tone of the medium sized zurna. The long sized zurna (kaba zurna) has a scale range that starts about a fifth below the deepest tone of the medium sized zurna. Traditionally the zurna is only played together with the double-skin drum davul (dohol). The short and medium sized zurnas are normally played solo or in pairs. If they are played in pairs, one zurna plays the melody and the other accompanies it with drones. The long sized zurnas are played at more than two too. If two ore more long sized zurnas are played together, traditinally only one melody part is played and other zurna players accompany the melody with drones, partially in parallel fourths and fifths. All European members of the shawm family are descendants of the zurna.

Download here a sound example for the medium sized zurna ("improvisation", own work): Orta_Zurna.ogg

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last update: 25.10.2015